wisconsin fast plants lab report

Dec 06,  · Fast+plants+essay 1. Section #6 December 4, Kendall Marine Anthocyanin: Inheritance Pattern Jecelin Espinal, Brittany Feiten, Emily Hornet, KarinaAbstract During this semester in lab, the class conducted an experiment that explored theinheritance of traits in the plant, Brassica Rapa. Blog. 30 August Ace your school projects with these 12 featured Prezi presentations and templates; 30 August 12 featured Prezi presentations and templates for engaging lessons. Feb 15,  · Rapid cycling Brassica rapa, also known by the trademarked name Wisconsin Fast Plants, are an ideal organism for instruction. They complete their life cycle in 35–45 d (Williams and Hill, ) and grow at room temperature in potting soil fertilized with commonly available house plant fertilizer Cited by: 6.

Fast Plant Lab by Emalie McMahon on Prezi

We have developed experiments and materials to model human genetics using rapid cycling Brassica rapaalso known as Fast Plants. Because of their self-incompatibility for pollination and the genetic diversity within strains, B. The experiment presented here is a paternity exclusion project in which a child is born with a known mother but two possible alleged fathers. Students use DNA markers microsatellites to perform paternity exclusion on these subjects. The genetic individuality of each B, wisconsin fast plants lab report.

Rapid cycling Brassica rapaalso known by the trademarked name Wisconsin Fast Plants, are an ideal organism for instruction. They complete their life cycle in 35—45 d Williams and Hill, and grow at room temperature in potting soil fertilized with commonly available house plant fertilizer.

For complete information on B. In this article, we report on the addition of human genetics modeling to their repertoire of instructional use. Despite being members of the plant kingdom, B. Even though they have perfect flowers, they are self-incompatible for mating an individual plant will reject its own pollenso it is very easy to mate two individuals by simply transferring pollen from one to another with no risk of self-pollination.

Self-incompatibility also preserves genetic diversity within B. Members of the same strain of B. In this article we describe how we have taken advantage of these features to model paternity testing. We describe below a project in which students use molecular markers to perform paternity exclusion using B.

The project can easily be completed within one semester and only requires four plants per student. We have developed methods for DNA marker analysis that can be performed in a minimally equipped college teaching laboratory and allow the students to directly experience DNA purification, polymerase chain reaction PCRand gel electrophoresis.

Using these techniques, the students obtain true experimental data. Each family is genetically unique so each student must interpret the bands in their gels to determine genotypes and evaluate the informativeness of the data to draw conclusions about paternity. To create a paternity dispute with the B.

The pollen-laden swab is then used to pollinate a third plant the Mother. Seeds from the Mother are sown, and one seedling is used as the Child Figure 1. While each plant is still growing, a leaf is collected, pressed, and dried. The students then purify DNA from a 1-cm 2 piece of dried leaf of each of the four parties in this dispute.

Once students have obtained DNA of adequate quality and quantity, they determine the genotype of all individuals for two different DNA wisconsin fast plants lab report Table 1 and use this data to determine if either father can be excluded. A sample schedule for this lab project in one wk college semester is given in Table 2.

Schematic of a simple mating scheme to create a paternity dispute with B. Sequence of the project, based on a genetics laboratory course that meets once per week, wisconsin fast plants lab report. The students use microsatellite DNA markers to test paternity. Microsatellites are small islands of usually noncoding DNA in the form of a short two- or three-nucleotide sequence such as cytosine-adenine repeated in tandem several times CA n.

What makes them so useful in genetics is that for any given microsatellite, individuals in a population will vary in the length of the repeat sequence, and these variant forms alleles are transmitted from parent to offspring wisconsin fast plants lab report the same rules of inheritance as all genes. When these fragments are separated by gel electrophoresis followed by staining of the gel to detect DNA, the result is that different alleles of a microsatellite can be identified as different bands on a gel Figure 2.

Microsatellite markers for Brassica have been developed by several groups around the world. The Multinational Brassica Genome Project website MBGP, provides information on hundreds of microsatellite markers from various sources, as well as information on the work in progress to map and sequence the genomes of Brassica species, wisconsin fast plants lab report.

Example of a gel in which a student was successful in obtaining microsatellite genotype data for two different microsatellite markers for all individuals in the experiment, wisconsin fast plants lab report. Conceptually, the most important part of the learning experience with the B. Because the B. An example of this can be seen in Figure 2. The marker NaH09 does not provide information in the case shown.

The Child is heterozygous for NaH09 and, by process of elimination, one can determine that the higher mobility allele must have come from its father, but both alleged fathers have that allele. However, based on genotypes for the marker Ra2E07Alleged Father 2 can be excluded, wisconsin fast plants lab report. He is homozygous for an allele that the child has, but that must have come from the Wisconsin fast plants lab report. Alleged Father 1, on the other hand, cannot be excluded because he has an allele that the child could only have inherited from its father, wisconsin fast plants lab report.

Results such as these occur because each individual used to initiate the mating has a unique genotype that is not known until completion of the experiment. This makes each run of the project a true experiment, i, wisconsin fast plants lab report. The instructor has the ability to shape and model with the students in the lab how scientists use their skills to make inferences, use real data, and draw conclusions from those data.

We set up the experiment so that one Child is obtained per mother so that each student personally carries out the entire project, but an alternate design where each student raises a different Child from the same set of parents would reduce the number of plants and DNA preparations wisconsin fast plants lab report in the class as a whole while still giving each student a unique experiment. Because all parents are outbred, when many seeds are collected and sown from the same mother, the genotype of each Child cannot be predicted from that of its siblings.

Also, wisconsin fast plants lab report, because the Mother was pollinated with a mixture of pollen from two Fathers, the paternity of each sibling is an independent event. Although our emphasis is on the use of the DNA markers, traits with Mendelian inheritance can also be used for markers in paternity exclusion. Two plant color mutations that can serve this purpose are anthocyaninless anlwhich is a complete lack of purple anthocyanin pigment, and yellow-green ygrwhich is a trait of yellowish green stems and leaves compared with the normal dark green.

These traits could be used as a backup in case students fail to obtain interpretable data from their DNA marker analysis. This also provides a teaching opportunity for the instructor to compare the differences in the nature of data between the simple true-breeding traits versus highly polymorphic molecular markers, wisconsin fast plants lab report.

As of this writing, we have not had any cases where the color phenotype marker data disagree with the microsatellite marker data. A major challenge that we faced in our effort to develop the paternity exclusion project was getting microsatellite marker analysis to work within the technical, budgetary, and timing constraints of a teaching lab.

Typically, biology teaching labs are less well provided for than research labs in terms of both equipment and supply budget. Scheduling also imposes constraints; although the scientist will stay in the lab as needed to carry out experiments, lab courses may be limited to a defined period of wisconsin fast plants lab report and only meet once per week, wisconsin fast plants lab report. Therefore, we sought to develop methods for the paternity exclusion project that required only the most basic lab equipment and were achievable in a lab course that meets as little as once per week for a 3-h period.

Although analysis of DNA such as restriction fragments of a plasmid is commonly performed in teaching labs, we initially found microsatellite analysis difficult to carry out in that environment. Microsatellite polymorphism results from variation in the length of short repetitive DNA elements, wisconsin fast plants lab report. When amplified by PCR, different alleles of a microsatellite marker produce different lengths of DNA fragments that are distinguished by gel electrophoresis Litt and Luty, ; Weber and May, However, agarose gels, which are commonly used for DNA analysis in teaching labs, are not well suited to resolve the small fragments and the small differences between fragments produced by PCR of microsatellite marker DNA.

The PCR products of microsatellite markers are typically on the order of — base pairs in length with alleles typically differing from each other by just a few base pairs. In research labs, high-resolution electrophoresis methods such as large-format denaturing polyacrylamide gels or capillary electrophoresis are used Schwengel et al.

Neither of these techniques is practical for the teaching lab because of the sophistication of technique and specialized equipment needed as well as the expense of reagents. Furthermore, all of the methods typically used to detect the PCR products in the gel have a level of hazard that makes it difficult for students to use them independently. Radioactive labeling is hazardous to novice users, fluorescently tagged primers are expensive and require specialized equipment, poststaining of gels with the fluorescent dye ethidium bromide involves the dual hazards of an intercalating agent and intense UV light, and poststaining of gels with SYBR Green I stain is expensive and still requires either UV light or a fluorimager.

Finally, even if the latest state-of-the-art equipment is available, it may actually not be the best choice for scientific education. It is too likely that the opportunity for active experimentation by the student will be replaced by passive viewing of a demonstration by the instructor. This passive type of instruction encourages the stereotype that science experimentation is for someone else, namely, the expert running the machine.

This can contribute to college students missing out on real experience in the activities basic to science and science-related careers. The following is a summary of these methods followed by points in the protocols that we have found to require more intensive coaching or intervention by the instructor.

As mentioned previously, students preserve leaf tissue from their plants by simply drying it. For this, wisconsin fast plants lab report, they make a miniature plant press consisting of paper towel, corrugated cardboard, and a rubber band. The method we use for purifying DNA below can also be done on fresh tissue.

We have wisconsin fast plants lab report to dry the tissue because it removes the need for a freezer in the lab to store the tissue. Storing tissue for later use is very important because it allows students to repeat the DNA purification if their first attempt is unsuccessful.

We discovered early on that the choice of purification method is important when working with B. Some purification methods that we tested yield DNA that appeared to be of high quality but did not support PCR; we presume that this is due to contamination with polyphenolics Koonjul et al.

We found that a simple lysis and organic extraction method Edwards et al. When using dried leaf tissue for DNA preparation, the tissue must first be minced to a powder, wisconsin fast plants lab report, and the mincing process can present problems for students who have a weak understanding of contamination issues such as passing tissue particles via tools not cleansed properly between uses, wisconsin fast plants lab report.

We also found it necessary to repeatedly impress on the students the need to be diligent and take care so that their sample did not get scattered or contaminated during mincing. In addition, students needed to develop the patience to continue mincing until their sample was a fine powder so that the extraction process would be efficient. Although it was useful to discuss what we meant by a fine powder, the best way to teach this was to have students begin mincing and let them know when their tissue was macerated well enough.

When they performed the technique a second time, they were able to identify the right end point independently. Students also needed training to recognize the DNA pellet produced by ethanol precipitation at the end of Wisconsin fast plants lab report purification. Purification of DNA from a small sample of leaf yields a small, barely visible pellet.

Most students were initially unable to identify this pellet many doubted its existence but, because the process was repeated, wisconsin fast plants lab report, they soon learned to recognize the pellet that results from a successful purification. Many were also skeptical that a barely visible pellet represents success. Initially some students believed that a very large pellet, which they sometimes obtained because of carbohydrates copurifying with the DNA, was more desirable.

This type of product again becomes a very useful tool and teachable moment for the instructor who can use the subsequent data set to demonstrate that the large pellet is actually undesirable. As a technique to evaluate the quantity and quality of genomic DNA preparations, gel electrophoresis provides hands-on experience and a visual result for the student.

However, the necessary instrumentation may not be available in a teaching lab, and these quantification methods do not indicate the quality of the DNA. We have found that evaluation of quality the average molecular weight of wisconsin fast plants lab report fragments is essential for this project because the students sometimes obtain DNA that is too degraded to support PCR.

Therefore, to evaluate their genomic DNA, the students run about one-tenth of each preparation in a nondenaturing polyacrylamide minigel, such as a MiniProtean apparatus Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA wisconsin fast plants lab report, and then visualize the DNA in the gels by silver staining.

On each gel they also run standards, which are samples of high-molecular-weight B. The use of silver staining avoids the choice between the hazards of ethidium bromide or the expense of SYBR green, and the entire process can be completed within a single 3-h lab period; the polyacrylamide minigels take only 45 min to run, and the silver staining can be completed in approximately 1 h.

Example of a silver-stained polyacrylamide minigel wisconsin fast plants lab report by students to evaluate the quality and quantity of their DNA preparations. High-quality DNA i.


Genetics - Wisconsin Fast Plants


wisconsin fast plants lab report


Feb 15,  · Rapid cycling Brassica rapa, also known by the trademarked name Wisconsin Fast Plants, are an ideal organism for instruction. They complete their life cycle in 35–45 d (Williams and Hill, ) and grow at room temperature in potting soil fertilized with commonly available house plant fertilizer Cited by: 6. Blog. 30 August Ace your school projects with these 12 featured Prezi presentations and templates; 30 August 12 featured Prezi presentations and templates for engaging lessons. Investigating Mendelian Genetics with Wisconsin Fast Plants™ Welcome to the wonderful world of Wisconsin Fast Plants™ and investigations to engage students in studying Mendelian genetics with hands-on experimentation. Originating from decades of innovative research by Professor Paul Williams at the University of Wisconsin-.